The United Kingdom has some of the lowest crime rates of first world countries, with three distinct systems of jurisprudence operating in the region: England and Wales (as one), Northern Ireland and Scotland. Each has its own police and court system, with the UK courts being the final Court of Appeals for all.
Steeped in culture and anchored in tradition, these three judicial bodies were developed through the centuries by confluences and divergences of events between the countries of the UK.
English law is rooted in the Magna Carta (1215), one of the most famous documents in the world. It expresses the rights of the people against oppression and gives them the right to justice and a fair trial. The Bill of Rights (1688), and the Act of Settlement (1700) were also influencing documents on English law.
Though Northern Ireland has its own separate judicial system, it is similar to England’s, having been under English influence for centuries.
Scotland has its own judicial system, apart from England. Though there are some similarities, there are differences caused by the various influencing cultures and experiences of the Scots, through the centuries.
The UK has one of the most efficient criminal justice systems in the world, blending statute law, precedent, and tradition to mete out legal decisions and sentencing.